Creative Problem Solving Process Instructional Design in the Context of Blended Learning in Higher Education

20 May 2023 11:33:23 Dibaca : 21 Kategori : Hasil Penelitian

Abstract

The Creative Problem Solving (CPS) process is a conceptual model that focuses on using higher-order thinking skills in order to overcome authentic problems during learning. The CPS process offers a structured methodology to enhance every learner's solid critical, creative, and innovative thinking skill. The application of the CPS method has been growing, including its implementation in the blended learning environment in universities. However, its application still requires a strategic framework that is by the blended learning conceptual model to facilitate the CPS process. Properly organized instructional design is an important element in maintaining the success of the CPS process in blended learning to encourage and promote learner creativity to solve problems. The application of the CPS method in the context of blended learning is integrated through synchronous and asynchronous patterns facilitated by the Moodle LMS-based e-Learning facility. This research aims to produce a CPS process instructional design in a blended learning context that is valid, practical, and effective and can systematically guide instructors or lecturers in facilitating students to be skilled in critical thinking and creative thinking in problem-solving processes. This development process is based on the incorporation of ideas related to the conceptual model of blended learning with the principles of the CPS process design strategy that has been developed. Instructional design was developed by applying the Research and Development (R&D) method, which implements several stages between Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. The validity of the resulting model product was measured using a validation sheet of learning design experts, learning technology, media, materials, and linguists with the title of professor. Questionnaire responses from lecturers and students measured the product's practicality, and the product's effectiveness was measured by conducting testing of critical and creative thinking skills. The research data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to provide a quality score on the resulting instructional design. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that this learning design is valid, practical, and effective in improving the thinking skills of prospective teacher students. This proves that the instructional design developed has the feasibility to be used in learning, which can effectively improve the creative problem-solving process in the context of blended learning.

Copyright (c) 2023 Nurrijal, Punaji Setyosari, Dedi Kuswandi, Saida Ulfa

DOI: https://doi.org/10.34190/ejel.21.2.2653/

Ide awal proses pemecahan masalah kreatif atau CPS pertama kali digagas Osborn (1953) dengan tiga prosedur utama dalam proses pemecahan masalah kreatif yaitu: pencarian fakta, penemuan ide, dan menemukan solusi. Menurut Van Hooijdonk, dkk. (2020) pencarian fakta, pencarian masalah, dan pencarian solusi termasuk dalam tugas pemecahan masalah yang kreatif. Menurut Treffinger (1995) CPS adalah kerangka kerja yang dapat digunakan individu atau kelompok untuk merumuskan masalah, peluang atau tantangan, menghasilkan dan menganalisis banyak ragam pilihan ide dan merencanakan proses tindaklanjut yang efektif dari solusi yang dihasilkan.

Dalam perkembangannya CPS mengalami beberapa perubahan salah satunya yang diusulkan oleh Treffinger, dkk. (2010) yaitu CPS sebagai acuan dasar dalam menggunakan kemampuan berpikir kreatif dan kritis secara harmonis, baik individu atau kelompok dengan memahami tantangan dan peluang, menghasilkan ide, dan mengembangkan rencana yang efektif untuk memecahkan masalah dan mengelola perubahan. Sedangkan menurut Lim & Han (2020) CPS dianggap sebagai metode representatif untuk mengembangkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah kreatif, yang efektif merangsang pemikiran divergen dan konvergen peserta didik sambil mendukung pendekatan sistematis untuk menemukan solusi kreatif dan memungkinkan pembelajaran bermakna dengan memanfaatkan alat pendukungnya. Oleh karena itu Cancer, dkk. (2022) menyarankan bahwa proses menuju pemecahan masalah kreatif perlu melibatkan dua langkah implementasi alat berpikir yang berurutan yaitu; (a) fase divergen dan (b) fase konvergen. Pada fase pertama, aktivitas menghasilkan sejumlah ragam opsi idea yang berbeda yang dihasilkan dengan cepat dan terlepas dari kesesuaian masalah. Pada fase kedua, aktivitas untuk mempersempit idea dari banyaknya idea yang ditawarkan melalui kontrol tertentu untuk menemukan solusi unik yang tepat untuk pemecahan masalah.

Kesimpulan:

CPS merupakan metode terpolarisasi dalam mendukung proses pemecahan masalah kreatif yaitu; mulai dari pencarian fakta, penemuan ide, dan menemukan solusi.